Optical fiber technology was originally deployed to cover long distances between continents. Because these submarine cables are expensive to deploy, advanced technologies were developed to use the fiber bandwidth as efficient as possible. The high cost of these new technologies were shared among all users of the back-bone connections. With the development of novel PIC technology, these advanced technologies become a lot more affordable. Today PIC technology is appearing in medium and short range communication links, all the way down to the end user. This is an appealing business for product companies as well as the foundry businesses behind it.